October 19

History events
1781 — (30nd of Tishrei, 5542) Emperor Joseph II issues the Toleration Decree in which the Jews of Austria were accorded civil and political equality
1905 — (20nd of Tishrei, 5666) A two day Pogrom began at Kishinev.
1937 — (14th of Cheshvan, 5698) Arab violence continues as bombs were thrown in the Shimon Hazadik quarter of Jerusalem, in Safed at group of reserve Jewish policeman and in the Tel Aviv/Jaffa area
1939 — (6th of Cheshvan, 5700) A Jewish ghetto at Lublin, Poland, is established
1940 — (17nd of Tishrei, 5701) Air raid sirens sounded tonight in Jerusalem as Axis planes were spotted approaching the coast of Palestine. No bombs fell on the City of David
1948 — In some of the fiercest fighting of the War of Independence Israeli forces are victorious at Huleikat after fighting both Egyptian and Saudi army units. ….. This victory opened the road to rest of the Negev; A naval battle took place between three Israeli warships near Majdal, and an Egyptian corvette with air support. An Israeli sailor was killed and four wounded, and two of the ships were damaged. One Egyptian plane was shot down, but the corvette escaped. This naval clash was part of the Israeli attempt to thwart the Egyptian drive up the coast through Gaza with the aim of taking Tel Aviv; 1948: Tonight, the 51st Battalion of the Givati Brigade launched an unsuccessful attack from the south on the Egyptian held police fort of Iraq Suwaydan
1948 — (16nd of Tishrei, 5709) Founding of Tzova, a kibbutz in the Judean hills outside of Jerusalem
1973 — (23nd of Tishrei, 5734) The Yom Kippur War continued to exact its toll. ….. By nightfall, the Syrian counterattack on the Golan Heights had been repelled with losses that included thirty Jordanian and Iraqi attacks. On the Suez front seventy Egyptian tanks were knocked out and fourteen of Sadat’s aircraft had been shot down
1994 — (14th of Cheshvan, 5755) Twenty-one Israelis and one Dutch national were murdered and another fifty were injured by a Hamas terrorist who set off a bomb as bus was approaching Dizengoff Square in Tel Aviv
2014 — (25nd of Tishrei, 5775) A spokesman for Tel Aviv’s Ichilov Hospital confirmed reports issued today by Reuters that it had treated a daughter of Ismail Haniyeh, a top leader for Hamas, following complications during a standard medical procedure in Gaza

1329 — (9th of Cheshvan, 5090) Asher ben Yechiel passed away. Born in 1250 this great Talmudic commentator was known as Rabbenu Asher or the «Rosh»
1518 — (3th of Cheshvan, 5278) Shealtiel a Sephardic Jew who had served as Kahya for twenty years was ousted from office by the community leaders, after many complaints of bribery and arbitrary taxes were lodged against him by Jews. The community banned him and his sons from holding the position of kahya or performing any other function involving contact with the Ottoman authorities.
1687 — (22th of Cheshvan, 5448) Giulio Bartolocci, Italian Christian student of Jewish literature, died
1894 — (29nd of Tishrei, 5665) James Darmesteter, French philologist, died
1916 — (22nd of Tishrei, 5677) Birthdate of pianist Emil Gilels
1943 — (23nd of Tishrei, 5704) Streptomycin the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, ….. was first isolated by researchers at Rutgers University by a Jewish research student from Connecticut named Albert Schat. However, according to academic tradition, Schatz’s supervisor, Professor Selman Abraham Waksman, took credit for his student’s discovery and received the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1952. Schatz was belatedly awarded the Rutgers medal in 1994, at the age of 74