October 13

History events
1843 — (19th of Tishrei, 5604) Bnai Brith was founded under the leadership of Henry Jones at Sinsheimer’s cafe on Essex Street in New York. Its original mission was the maintenance of orphanages and homes for the elderly and widows. It extended its work to many spheres of American Jewish life, including combating anti-Semitism. (A.D.L.) and working with students on campus (Hillel)
1870 — (18th of Tishrei, 5631) Victor Emanuel emancipates the Jews of Rome
1881 — (20th of Tishrei, 5642) Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends decided to speak Hebrew exclusively, marking the beginning of the revival of the language in modern times. ….. Born Eliezer Perlman in Lithuania, Ben- Yehuda is proof that one person can make a difference. As a youngster, a rabbi gave Ben-Yeuda a Hebrew translation of Robinson Crusoe. That experience convinced him that Hebrew should be a modern, spoken language as well as a language of prayer. He devoted the rest of his life to the idea of living in the land of Israel where Hebrew would be the spoken language. He arrived in Jaffa with his bride in 1881 and he became associate editor of a Hebrew Language journal. His task of creating a Modern Hebrew language was not an easy one. He was attacked both in print and physically by those who thought he was desecrating the holy tongue. At the same time, he had to keep inventing words since much had happened since Hebrew was last an active language. Life was a real challenge for his children. It was difficult for them to have playmates since they were the only people who spoke Hebrew. Ben-Yehuda did not give up his dream. He lived to see Hebrew become one of the three official languages of Palestine under the Mandate after World War I. Such was his success that by the time he died in 1922, a majority of the Jews in Palestine listed Hebrew as their native tongue on the census forms
1894 — (13th of Tishrei, 5655) Alfred Dreyfus is arrested by Commandant du Paty de Clam, an assistant to the Army Chief of Staff and charged with treason. Dreyfus was left alone with a pistol, having been encouraged to do “the honorable thing.” When Dreyfus refused he was marched off to prison where he would be kept in solitary confinement for the next five days.
1937 — (8nd of Heshvan 5698) The Palestine Post reported that a slight earth tremor was felt in Jerusalem. It lasted about a second, and caused in some cases a definite sway of upper stories of buildings. There were sporadic Arab attacks, accompanied by heavy firing, at Hadera, Safed and on Kibbutz Gordonia. A curfew was imposed on Safed
1943 — (1th of Tishrei, 5704) A revolt took place in Camp Number I at Sobibor. Alexander Pechersky distributed knives and hatchets to other prisoners. Nine SS and two Ukrainians were killed in the fighting. Three hundred of the prisoners from Camp Number I’ escaped. The other 300 would be killed. However, as a result of this revolt, Sobibor ended its operation
1946 — (18th of Tishrei, 5707) Three masked gunmen believed to members of the Irgun escaped with $12,000 after a daring daylight robbery in down town Tel Aviv; Members of Hashomir Hatzair (Young Guard), a left-wing Zionist organization, distributed pamphlets in Tel Aviv calling on the Jewish community in Palestine to take ‘active measures’ against Jewish terrorist organizations.
1973 — (17th of Tishrei, 5734) Yom Kippur War. After much hesitation and despite opposition from America’s Western Allies, President Nixon ordered a massive airlift of supplies for the IDF. The material helped offset the tons of modern weaponry being shipped into the region by the Russians.
2023 — (28th of Tishrei, 5784) Iron Swords. As October 13 begins in Israel, more accounts of horror inflicted by the Hamas terrorists emerge including the murder of 90-year-old Gina Semiatich, who was forcibly taken and killed by the Hamas terrorists at Kibbutz Kissufim, U.S. Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin is scheduled to meet with the Prime Minister, terrorists continue “fire barrages at the south” and “Israelis abroad are urged to take care as Hamas calls on supporters to ‘day of rage’ today

1483 — (12nd of Heshvan 5244) Isaac Ben Judah Abravanel (also spelled Abarbanel) started his exegesis on the Bible. ….. Born in Portugal 1437, Abravanel was one of the most colorful and interesting characters of the final decades of during which Jews lived in Spain and Portugal. He was part of a distinguished family and he was well educated in Jewish and secular studies. Abravanel was a financier, tax collector and advisor to the King Alfonso of Portugal. When Alfonso died, Abravanel had falling out with his successor. It was at this time that Abravanel decided to give up his political duties and devote himself to writing commentaries. For reasons that are too complex for this brief entry, Abravanel was forced to flee to Spain where he returned to his tax collecting duties. He left Spain in 1492 and ended up in Naples where he ended up as financier and tax collector again. He passed away in. 1503 leaving behind a body of commentaries on the Torah and the Prophets. According to some authorities, his work is solid, but not original. He is, however seen as being the last in a long line of Jewish commentators and philosophers who were part of the Sephardic culture that flourished from the 8th to the 15th centuries
1654 — (2nd of Heshvan 5415) On this date Isaac Rodriguez Cunha, a citizen of Curacao, writes a letter which is addressed “to the illustrious Gentlemen, the Mahamad of the Holy Congregation Mikvah Israel, Curacao.” This is one of the first written pieces of evidence used in fixing the dates for the founding of the Jewish community and the synagogue in Curacao. Mahamad is a term used for the “board of directors of a Spanish-Portuguese Congregation
1875 — (14th of Tishrei, 5636) Leopold Löw, rabbi and critic, died
1880 — Birthdate of Sasha Cherny, the pen name of Russian poet and satirist Alexander Mikhailovich Glikberg
1945 — (6th of Cheshvan, 5706) On Shabbat, Leon Recanati, Sephardic leader of Palestine and formerly of Salonika passed away
1973 — (17th of Tishrei, 5734) Avraham Lanir was scrambled for a reconnaissance mission deep in Syrian territory. ….. During his return to Israel, Lanir was caught in a missile ambush and his Mirage was hit in the rear, forcing him to eject. The wind carried the parachuting pilot back over the border into Syrian territory and he landed in the area of Mazra’at Beit Jinn. Israeli Armor Corps soldiers witnessed him land and attempted to rescue him, but he was captured by a Syrian jeep patrol that reached him first. Lt. Col. Lanir was tortured to death by his Syrian captors. His body was finally returned by the Syrians in 1974. “Former Israel Air Force Commander Mordechai Hod noted that Lanir had information that would have placed the existence of Israel at risk had he revealed it to the Syrians”
1973 — (17th of Tishrei, 5734) Yom Kippur War. ….. Ady Bnaya and David Ya’ir made it back safely to Israeli lines after their F-4E Phantom Jet was shot down by Syrian anti-aircraft fire; Iftach Zemer and Itzhak Amitai returned safely to Israeli lines when they were forced to eject from their F-4E Phantom Jet after it suffered a technical malfunction; After his Phantom F-4E Jet fell victim to “friendly fire,” Uri Bakal safely ejected and made it back to Israeli lines