May 12

History events
1096 — (17th of Iyar, 4856) Massacre of the Jews of Worms by Crusaders
1267 — (15th of Iyar, 5027) Synod of Vienna under Cardinal Guido orders Jews to wear pointed hats
1393 — (29th of Iyar, 5153) The Jews of Sicily were forbidden to display any funeral decorations in public
1540 — (6th of Sivan, 5300) Paul III issued “Licet Judaei,” a papal bull clearing the Jews Of the charge that they practiced blood rituals
1943 — The first Aliyah to the Negev began with the establishment of Kibbutz Gevulot. The first three settlements, Gevulot, Revivim, and Bet Eshel, were experimentally established in 1943 to determine the feasibility of permanent settlements in the Negev. As a result of the information gathered in the experimental stage, eleven new settlements were established in the Negev in 1946, and an additional seven in 1947 — (7th of Iyar, 5703) These settlements served also as strong-points to defend the Yishuv from attack by an enemy advancing from the south. The Egyptian army suffered its first defeat at Nirim, one of the settlements established in 1946, on the anniversary of the first Aliyah to the Negev
1948 — (3th of Iyar, 5708) Bet-Shean was captured by the Haganah; specifically the 13th Battalion of the Golani Brigade. Bet-Shean is one of the oldest cities in the world having been first built in the fifth century B.C.E;
U.S. Secretary George Marshall “appealed to Ben-Gurion to hold off a decision for independence. Courteously, but firmly the appeal was refused.”
1948 — (3th of Iyar, 5708) David Ben-Gurion convened an emergency meeting of the Provisional Council, the governing body of the unborn Jewish state. The issue at hand was a proposal that there should be a delay in declaring statehood. According to one report as much as half of the council wanted to postpone the declaration and accept some sort of cease-fire with the Arab forces already fighting the Jews. The news the council was not good. Mrs. Meir reported on the failure of the talks with the Jordanians. She later reported that she was relieved to see that her report did not dissuade Ben-Gurion from deciding that the Jewish state would be born when the British mandate ended in forty-eight hours. The Council also heard from Yigal Yadin, the military leader who brought the negative reports about the pending destruction of the Etzion Bloc of settlements. Ben-Gurion closed the debate by outlining all of the risks. In the end, the Council voted by six to four to reject the offer of a cease fire and push forward with the declaration of statehood
1948 — (3th of Iyar, 5708) Having withstood the onslaught of the Arab Legion during the fight for Mishmar Ha-Emek, Lehi launched a successful operation on five villages directly to the west the Kibbutz
1965 — (10th of Iyar, 5725) Israel and West Germany exchange letters beginning diplomatic relations
1967 — (2th of Iyar, 5727) In Moscow, an Egyptian parliamentary delegation including Anwar Sadat was told to expect “an Israeli invasion of Syria immediately after Independence Day, with the aim of overthrowing the Damascus regime.”
2006 — (14th of Iyar, 5766) Harvey Sheldon launched for the first time in the world, WORLD JEWISH NETWORK on the internet. The format will be 24 hours a day, 7 days a week of nothing but popular Jewish and Israeli music, that you can listen to and dance.

People
1700 — (5th of Sivan, 5460) Joseph Athias, the native of Cordoba who served as a rabbi in Amsterdam where he published two editions of the Hebrew Bible passed away today
1800 — (Iyar 17, 5560) Rabbi Moses Hayyim Ephraim of Sadilkov, author of “Degel Mahaneh Ephraim” passed away
1943 — (7th of Iyar, 5703) In London, Shmuel Zygielbogm committed suicide. He was one of two Jewish representatives of the Polish-Government-In-Exile in London. His final letter was a cry of agony and despair. He was crushed that the world would do nothing to save the Jews. His wife and son perished in the Ghetto. He felt his life had been a failure and hoped that his death might shock the world into action. At one point he wrote that he could not live ‘when the remnant of the Jewish people in Poland . . . is being steadily annihilated.’