June 19

History events
1269 — (18th of Tammuz, 5029) Louis IX (Saint Louis) of France, ….. needing no urging from the Church, ordered all Jews found in public without a badge (yellow or red) to be fined ten livres of silver. The badge in France was usually a circle of red or yellow material and was known as a rouelle. The original badge was actually Moslem in origin (Caliph Omar II (717-20)) who decreed that both Jews and Christians wear a distinguishing mark. The «badge» took on different shapes colors and even dress (i.e. a hat or color of a dress) depending on the country
1768 — (4th of Tammuz, 5528) At Uman, ….. the Haidamak Army under the command of Maksym Zalizniak slaughtered thousands of Jews in the Gonta Massacres. The slaughter came at the end of the siege of Uman in which Ivan Gonta had betrayed the Polish garrison which led to its defeat. The Polish commandment had tried to “buy the lives” of the Poles by giving up the Jews; a ploy that failed. Led by Leib Shargorodoski and Moses Menaker, the Jews put up a valiant but futile defense. The number of dead Jews which totaled more than 2,000 was inflated by the number of refugees who had sought refuge in the town
1884 — (26th of Sivan, 5644) After a rumor circulated through certain parts of the Russian city of Nizhny Novgorod that a Jew had kidnapped a Christian child and taken it to a synagogue, a mob attacked the synagogue. During the riot 9 Jews were killed, six houses were wrecked and an untold number were plundered
1948 — (12th of Sivan, 5708) Panama and Costa Rica recognized Israel
1950 — (4th of Tammuz, 5710) Israel apologized to the Swedish Government today for the assassination of Count Bernadotte, United Nations Mediator for Palestine, by terrorists on Sept. 17, 1948
2002 — (9th of Tammuz, 5762) Seven people were killed and 50 injured, ….. three of them critically, when a suicide bomber blew himself up at a crowded bus stop and hitchhiking post at the French Hill intersection in northern Jerusalem shortly after 7:00 P.M., as people were returning home from work. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. The victims: Noa Alon, 60, of Ofra; Gal Eisenman, 5, of Ma’ale Adumim; Michal Franklin, 22, of Jerusalem; Tatiana Igelski, 43, of Moldova; Hadassah Jungreis, 20, of Migdal Haemek; Gila Sara Kessler, 19, of Eli; and Shmuel Yerushalmi, 17, of Shilo

1286 — (25th of Sivan, 5046) Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg ….. was imprisoned in a castle in Alsace, Lombardy. Tradition has it that a large ransom of 23,000 marks (approximately 15,144,900 U.S dollars today) was raised for him (by the ROSH), but Rabbi Meir refused it, for fear of encouraging the imprisonment of other rabbis. He died in prison after seven years. 14 years after his death a ransom was paid for his body by Alexander ben Shlomo (Susskind) Wimpen, who was subsequently laid to rest beside the Maharam.” Reb Meir was also known by the term Maharam. His erudition and piety earned him the appellation, ‘Light of the Exile.’ Meir was a leading commentator on Rashi’s explanations of the Talmud. Such was his reputation that Ashkenazi communities in Italy, France and Germany looked to him for guidance when questions of law and/or custom arose
1790 — (7th of Tammuz, 5550) Saul Lowenstam “a renowned Dutch rabbi and Talmudist” passed away. Born at Rzeszów in 1717 he was the son of Rabbi Areyh Leib ben Saul, the son-in-law of Rabbi Abraham Kahana and the father of Rabbi Jacob Moses Lowenstam. His writings included Binyan Ariel and a Torah Commentary, HeChatzer HaChadasha
2003 — (19th of Sivan, 5763) Avner Mordechai, 58, of Moshav Sde Trumot, was killed when a suicide bomber blew up in his grocery on Sde Trumot, south of Beit Shean