July 23

History events
501 — (22th of Av, 4261) A violent earthquake hit Eretz Yisrael during which the town of Akko was totally destroyed
1253 — (26th of Av, 5013) The Jews were expelled from Vienne, France by order of Pope Innocent III
1298 — (13th of Av, 5058) Massacre of the Jews of Wurzburg, Germany
1787 — (8th of Av, 5547) The Jews of Austria were required to take family names
1913 — (18rd of Tammuz, 5673) Arabs attacked the Jewish settlement of Rehovot
1927 — (23rd of Tammuz, 5687) The two weeklong convention of the Palestine Jewish Labor Federation came to a close tonight in Tel Aviv
1936 — (4th of Av, 5696) Arab terrorists threw a bomb at a small religious school (Talmud Torah) in the Yemenite Quarter of Tel Aviv. Nine children were injured
1938 — (24rd of Tammuz, 5698)Jews in Germany are ordered to apply for identity cards to be shown to police on demand
1939 — (7th of Av, 5699) In Budapest, a plan for the partial exchange of populations between Hungary and the United States to solve this country’s «Jewish problem» was reported today to be under consideration by the government” which in which Hungary would send her Jews, numbering almost 400,000, to the United States in exchange for families of Aryan Hungarians already established” in the United States
1944 — (3th of Av, 5704) The Nazis deport 1700 Jews from Rhodes to Auschwitz
1945 — (13th of Av, 5705) In what was their first joint operation after having “resolved to against British rule” a joint unit of Irgun and Lehi fighters, under the command of Yehoshua Weinstein (Benyamin) blew up a railway bridge near the village of Yibne
2002 — (14th of Av, 5762) The Knesset approved the Tal Law as an attempt to reach a compromise to the public demand that the Israeli ultra-Orthodox citizens would share an equal extent of obligations which other Israeli citizens are required to fulfill, specifically requiring them to serve in the Israel Defense Forces

1626 — (10th of Av, 5386) Birthdate (on the secular calendar) of Sabbatai Zevi, the most famous of the Jewish false messiahs. He died in 1676 after converting to Islam and becoming a low-level official in the Turkish government
1942 — (9th of Av, 5702) Adam Czerniakow took his own life. ….. Born in 1880, Czerniakow was the leader of the Jewish council of Warsaw, the Judenrat. Czerniakow had held the position for 3 years and kept a diary of over 1000 pages chronicling the formation of the ghetto up to the beginning of the forced transports. The Germans had ordered him to provide them with a list of names for deportation. His response was a list of his own name written hundreds of times. The day before his suicide, the Nazi officer in charge of the deportation procedure threatened to shoot his wife if he didn’t cooperate. In his suicide note he wrote «I am powerless, my heart trembles in sorrow and compassion. I can no longer bear all this.»
1951 — (19rd of Tammuz, 5711) The first immigrant from the U.S.S.R., 73-year-old Tova Lerner from Soviet Bessarabia, arrived in Israel together with 993 newcomers from Romania