January 31

History events
439 — (30th of Shevat 4199) Promulgation of the Code of Theodosius II in the Byzantine Empire. This was the first imperial compilation of anti- Jewish laws since Constantine. Jews were prohibited from holding important positions involving money including judicial and executive offices and the ban against building new synagogues was reinstated. Theodosius was the Roman emperor of the East (408–450) The Code was readily accepted as well by Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III (425-455).
1253 — (30th of Shevat 5013) Henry III of England ordered that Jewish worship in Synagogues must be held quietly so that Christians should not have to hear it when passing by. In addition, Jews were not to employ Christian nurses or maids, nor was any Jew allowed to prevent another Jew from converting to Christianity
1493 — (13th of Shevat 5253) Jews fleeing Spain were no longer allowed to enter to enter Genoa. During the previous year Jews fleeing Spain were allowed to land in Genoa for three days. As of this date the special consideration was cancelled due to the “fear” that the Jews may introduce the Plague
1906 — (3th of Shevat, 5666) “Cossacks Massacre Jews” published today described the attacks on the Jews of Gomel by Cossacks whose efforts “to obtain evidence of revolutionary activity” degenerated into an orgy of drunken looting and murder
1918 — (18th of Shevat, 5678) Dr. Jechiel Tchlenow, the Moscow physician who was a major leader of the Zionist movement passed away. In 1917, Tchlenow had come to London “where he took an active part in the diplomatic negotiations that have resulted in official declarations by Great Britain” favoring the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine
1930 — (29th of Tevet, 5690) The Times “reported from Jerusalem today that the Palestine government” has proposed the establishment of an “agricultural bank…with a capital of $2,500,000.”
1938 — (27th of Shevat, 5698) The Palestine Post reported on the rise of anti-Jewish feelings and vandalism in Yugoslavia including the fact that «local Nazis» had smashed the windows out of the Sephardic synagogue of Belgrade
1942 — (11th of Shevat, 5702) Einsatzgruppe A commanding officer, Franz W. Stahlecker, sent a detailed report about activities in the Baltic and White Russian countries. It stated that between July 23 and October 15, 1941, 135,567 Jews were killed
1949 — (25th of Tevet, 5709) The U.S. which had recognized Israel on a de factor basis on May 15 recognized Israel on a de jure basis today
1955 — (6th of Shevat, 5715) Egyptian authorities hanged two Jews in Cairo – Dr. Moshe Marzouk and Samuel (Shmeul) Azar – who had been found guilty of spying for Israel. Eight other Jews had been given long prison sentences for the same reason
1961 — (12th of Shevat, 5721) David Ben-Gurion resigned as premier of Israel; 3.5-kilometer tract of land southwest of Mount Kidod was chosen today as the site for the city of Arad
1978 — (21th of Shevat, 5738) Israel turned 3 military outposts in the West Bank into civilian settlements
2001 — (5th of Shevat, 5761) “Despite objections on both sides of the border, Egypt has agreed to start supplying Israel with natural gas next year, a deal totaling $3 billion that will continue until at least 2012.”
2011 — (24th of Shevat, 5771) “A cornerstone laying ceremony was held for four apartment buildings with a total of 24 homes that are the beginning of the new Jerusalem community of Beit Orot on the Mount of Olives Ridge”

1684 — (25th of Shevat, 5444) Benedict (Baruch) Nehamias de Castro, who was so successful in practicing medicine in his hometown of Hamburg “that in 1645 he was appointed physician in ordinary to Queen Christina of Sweden” passed away today.
1813 — (28th of Shevat, 5573) Birthdate of Dutch physician, pharmacist and philanthropist, Samuel Sarphati. “One of the great Amsterdammers of the 19th century,” Sarphati, was a promoter of public housing, an organizer of municipal services such as garbage collecting, and the builder of a bread factory that provided better and cheaper bread for the city. He also built the Amstel hotel. Sarphati is seen by Dutch history as a great philanthropist. Nobody ever knew he was Jewish—until the Germans authorities changed the name Sarphati Street into “Muiderschans”.
1841 — (9th of Shevat, 5601) German Jewish music teacher Moses Budinger who “edited the Jewish ritual for festivals with a grammatical commentary in Hebrew and the penitential prayers with a commentary” passed away in Cassel today
1946 — (27th of Shevat, 5706) Having resigned from the RAF Mordechai «Modi» Alon returned to Palestine and enrolled as an architecture student at the Technion. Allon would gain fame as one of the first fighter pilots in the IAf and the first one to shoot down an enemy aircraft