January 21

History events
1306 — (5th of Shevat, 5066) Phillip the Fair of France issued secret orders today for his officials to prepare for the expulsion of his Jewish subjects and the confiscation of their property. Phillip found that his treasury had been depleted by his wars with the Flemish and he saw this as a way of replenishing his treasury. Under the terms of the expulsion any Jews found after the July 22, 1306 (10th of Av) were to be executed
1393 — (7th of Shevat, 5153) The Jews of Majorca were guaranteed protection by the governor who “issued an edict for their protection, providing that a citizen who should injure a Jew should be hanged, and that a knight for the same offense should be subjected to the strappado.”
1871 — (28th of Tevet, 5631) Establishment of Emanuel Jewish Cemetery in Des Moines, Iowa. The site is adjacent to the northwest corner of Woodland Cemetery at Woodland and Harding, just northwest of downtown Des Moines
1910 — (11th of Shevat, 5670) The Angel Island Immigration Station opened today. Prior to the opening of the Immigration Station, immigrants landed directly in San Francisco. Jews immigrated through Angel Island primarily in two waves: in the 1920s from Russia to escape the Bolshevik revolution, and between 1938 and 1940, when German and Austrian Jews crossed Asia to flee the Nazis. In some ways, Angel Island was the Ellis Island of the West. But because of the politics and laws of its time, unlike Ellis Island, many immigrants were detained on Angel Island for weeks or months at a time, particularly Chinese and other Asian immigrants. According to Judy Yung, a retired professor at U.C. Santa Cruz and co-author of a new book about Angel Island’s history, Jewish immigrants had it better. The average stay for Russians and Jews on Angel Island was two to three days, and less than 2 percent were deported. “Overall, the Russian and Jewish experiences on Angel Island were very similar if not better than those of their counterparts on Ellis Island, where their rejection rate was almost twice as high,” she writes. “For the overwhelming majority who were coming to escape religious or political persecution, Angel Island was truly a gateway to the promised land of freedom and opportunity.” However, it wasn’t an easy gateway to pass through. Many immigrants — including Jews — were detained. In some instances, representatives from Jewish and Hebrew benevolent societies felt compelled to come to Angel Island to testify on behalf of Jewish detainees
1913 — (13th of Shevat, 5673) At the request of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 156 women from 52 congregations around the country met in Cincinnati, Ohio, to create the National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods (NFTS). While local women’s groups had been formed in individual synagogues in the 1890s, the NFTS was the first national body to bring these groups together.
1917 — (27th of Tevet, 5677) Hadassah issued “an appeal for $75,000 for the equipment and support for one year of a medical unit to be sent to Palestine” which will provide treatment “for Jews, Christians and Mohammedans.”
1918 — (8th of Shevat, 5678) Following the lead of Reform Jewish sisterhoods, and at the behest of Solomon Schechter, Conservative synagogue sisterhoods joined together to form the National Women’s League of the United Synagogue.
1919 — (20th of Shevat, 5679) Today, during the fund raising drive of the ZOA the Palestine Restoration Fund received $46,000 from San Francisco and $15,000 from Los Angeles
1921 — (12th of Shevat, 5681) King Constantine donates 10,000 Drachmae for the relief of Jewish sufferers of the fire in Salonica
1934 — (5th of Shevat, 5694) The New York Times correspondent in Jerusalem suggests that “the division of Palestine into Jewish and Arab canton with each of these peoples living as a separate entity” would be “a solution to the Arab Jewish problem.” Based on reports from other sources, the Arab canton would include Jerusalem, Haifa and Jaffa while the Jewish canton would be limited to Tel Aviv, which virtually an all-Jewish city any way, and a narrow strip of land stretching from Betsian to Tiberias to the swamps around Lake Huleh
1941 — (22th of Tevet, 5701) In Rumania, the Iron Guard raided thousands of Jews, destroyed hundreds of shops, and looted or burned twenty-five synagogues. In addition, 120 Jews were cruelly tortured and killed; Bulgaria enacted its first anti-Jewish measures.
1942 — (3th of Shevat, 5702) In the Vilna Ghetto, the Jews established the United Partisan Organization (Fareynigte Partizaner Organizatsye, FPO), the only organization in the ghettos that included all the Zionist youth movements; After having completely surrounded Novi-Sad, Yugoslavia, Hungarian troops started what would be a three day long killing spree where Jews were dragged from their homes in 20° below zero and in heavy snow slaughtered at the “killing pits” along the banks of the Danube River.
1943 — (15th of Shevat, 5703) In Warsaw, the Germans opened fire in the ghetto. Resistance was given by Jews seizing weapons and firing from rooftops with only 10 pistols. The Germans retreated after twelve were killed
1945 — (7th of Shevat, 5705) Ninety-six Hungarian Jews interned at Auschwitz and working at a quarry at Golleschau, Germany, are sealed inside a pair of cattle cars labeled «Property of the SS.» Half of the prisoners freeze to death as the train travels aimlessly for days. At Zwittau, Germany, the cattle cars are detached from the train and left at the station. Manufacturer Oskar Schindler alters the bill of lading to read «Final Destination—Schindler Factory, Brünnlitz.» After unsealing the cars at his factory, Schindler frees the Jews.
1953 — (5th of Shevat, 5713) The Jerusalem Post reported on the worsening security situation along the country’s borders, especially the Jordanian-Israeli no-man’s-land dividing Jerusalem. This security deterioration, infiltration and frequent robberies may have been directly influenced by an intensified anti-Israeli activity of the Arab states at the UN General Assembly. Jordan prevented any cement or building materials from being transported to the Israeli enclave on Mount Scopus, urgently needed there to repair damaged buildings, claiming that Israel wished to fortify the enclave
1991 — (6th of Shevat, 5751) Orders to stay home from work were canceled for the rest of Israel today, but not for Tel Aviv, which appears to be the main Iraqi target. Scud missiles came down here Friday and Saturday with miraculously little effect and no deaths thus far; one hit the only vacant lot for blocks, another an empty bomb shelter.

1596 — (1th of Adar-1, 5356) Rabbi Judah Leib Hanlish author of Vaygash Yehuda, passed away
1716 — (8th of Shevat, 5476) Birthdate “British businessman” and descendant of “Portuguese Sephardic Jews” Joseph Salvador, a supporter of the “1753 Jew bill,’’ the sole Jewish “director of the British East India Company” and active supporter of the colonization of Georgia and South Carolina where a large number of Sephardim settled including his nephew Francis was reputed to have been “the first Jew to be elected public office” what became the United States and the first Jew to die during the American Revolution
1749 — (13th of Shevat, 5509) Birthdate of Chaim Volozhin, a disciple of the Valna Gaon. Also known as Reb Cahim he was the founder of the Volozhin Yeshiva, which provided the “template” for similar academies throughout much of what was at that time part of Poland and the Russian Empire
1890 — (29th of Tevet, 5650) Nathan Marcus Adler, chief rabbi of the British empire, died
1908 — (18th of Shevat, 5668) Birthdate of Mordechai Surkis, the first mayor of Kfar Saba. Date of death — 26 May 1995