August 1

History events
388 — (12th of Av, 4148) The synagogue located on the Euphrates in Callinicum was looted and burned by Church officials.
1797 — (9th of Av, 5557) Two Jews elected to the National Assembly of Holland
1826 — (27th of Tammuz, 5586) Last auto da fé at which a Jew was burned held at Valencia
1936 — (13th of Av, 5696) The report of the Peel Commission was discussed today in Geneva, ….. home of the League of Nations. Poland, Romania and other East European countries, debating the Peel Report on the proposed partition of Palestine, demanded that Great Britain continue to fulfill her obligations under the Mandate. The Arab leadership argued that the rights of the people of Palestine could not be contested and that any partition scheme was contrary to Articles 20 and 31 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. In a contradiction of facts the Arabs did not deny the rights of the Jewish minority in Palestine, and were even prepared to furnish guarantees in this respect, but they unanimously opposed the country’s partition and demanded immediate, total independence. But part of the rights of the Jewish community under the terms of the Balfour Declaration and the Mandate was to a Jewish Homeland, not citizenship in an Arab country. In South Africa General J.C. Smuts, vice premier and minister of justice, expressed his grave misgivings about the partition scheme in general, and the smallness of the proposed Jewish state in particular. A total rejection of the partition was also the subject of letters written by Colonel J.C. Wedgwood, MP (Member of Parliament), and addressed to the British and world press
1938 — (4th of Av, 5698) In Austria, ….. on rent day” another of the Nuremberg Laws went into effect under which it is sufficient for a single ‘Aryan’ in a block of flats to object to Jewish tenants for the Jews to receive notices ordering them to vacate the premises – a move which is expected to lead to Jews being able to only live in flats where all of the other residents of the building are Jewish; Virtually all Jewish-owned cafes on Vienna’s famous Ring Boulevard were ordered today to close their doors” while all other cafes were ordered to post signs saying “Jews Not Wanted.”
1941 — (8th of Av, 5701) Another 1,000 Jews were shot in the city of Kishenev
1943 — (29th of Tammuz, 5703) In Poland the final liquidation of the Bendzin Ghetto began today as the first batch of what would total 8,000 prisoners were deported today. When the Nazis began their final liquidation of Bendzin Ghetto they are met with unexpected “armed resistance in several bunkers” led by young Jews that “hampered” the Germans forcing them to spend two weeks on this latest venture in murderous cruelty
1946 — (4th of Av, 5706) In Miskol, Hungry industrial workers stage a pogrom. Two Jews are lynched. This is an example of the post-war anti-Semitic violence that led approximately 4,000 Jews to leave Hungary for Palestine during the next two years
1954 — (2th of Av, 5714) A group of ten raiders under the command of Meir Har-Zion returned from a raid conducted near Jenin where they “attacked two policemen and took one of them prisoner.”

1298 — (22th of Av, 5058) Mordecai ben Hillel killed during the massacre of Jews at Nuremberg
1926 — (21st of Av, 5686) Israel Zangwill passed away. The Russian born, Anglo-Jewish author, Zionist and champion of social justice is best known for two of his works — a novel entitled Children of the Ghetto: A Study of a Peculiar People a highly successful play entitled The Melting Pot. Among those who saw and enjoyed this was President Theodore Roosevelt
1933 — (9th of Av, 5693) Fritz Rosenfelder, leader and founder of the sports club at Saanstaat, Wurtenberg, commits suicide because he was expelled from the club; in a final letter to his former club colleagues, he wrote: «I am leaving with no hatred. My only wish is that Germany should be restored to reason . . . How more beautifully could I have given my life for my Fatherland.»
1944 — (12th of Av, 5704) Anne Frank writes the last entry in her diary
2006 — (7th of Av, 5766) Skirmishes with Hezbollah guerrillas in the southern Lebanese village of Ayta al-Shaab left three soldiers, including an officer, of a Paratrooper Brigade unit dead and at least another 25 wounded. The names of the fallen have been released: St.-Sgt. Yehunatan Einhorn, 22, of Moshav Gimzo; First Sergeant Michael Levine, 21, of Jerusalem; and Lieutenant Ilan Gabbai, 22, of Kiryat Tivon
2014 — (5th of Av, 5774) Major Benaya Sarel, 26, from Kiryat Arba ….. and St.-Sgt. Liel Gidoni, 20, from Jerusalem both serving with the Givati Brigade were killed today after the cease fire had begun. At the same time 2nd Lt. Hadar Goldin, 23, from Kfar Saba was kidnapped. On August 2, Hadar was declared to have died in today’s attack as well. (In life they were loved and admired. They were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions.). Twenty-four year old Lt. Eitan Fund “rushed into a tunnel to try and stop the kidnapping of Hadar Goldin who in fact had already been killed by the terrorist – an act of heroism for which he received the Distinguished Service Medal